Researchers studying the use of British Sign Language (BSL) by young children has shed light on one mechanism - iconicity - that may play an important role in children's ability to learn language.
For spoken and written language, the arbitrary relationship between a word's form - how it sounds or how it looks on paper - and its meaning is a particularly challenging feature of language acquisition. But one of the first things people notice about sign languages is that signs often represent aspects of meaning in their form. For example, in BSL the sign EAT involves bringing the hand to the mouth just as you would if you were bringing food to the mouth to eat it.
In fact, a high proportion of signs across the world's sign languages are similarly iconic, connecting human experience to linguistic form. Robin Thompson and colleagues David Vison, Bencie Woll, and Gabriella Vigliocco at the Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre (DCAL) at University College London in the United Kingdom wanted to examine whether this kind of iconicity might provide a key to understanding how children come to link words to their meaning.
The researchers looked at data from 31 deaf children who were being raised in deaf BSL signing families in the United Kingdom. Parents indicated the number of words understood and produced by their children between the ages of 8 and 30 months. The researchers decided to focus on 89 specific signs, examining children's familiarity with the signs as well as the iconicity and complexity of the signs.
The findings reveal that younger (11-20 months) and older (21-30 months) children comprehended and produced more BSL signs that were iconic than those that were less iconic. And the benefit of iconicity seemed to be greater for the older children. Importantly, this relationship did not seem to depend on how familiar, complex or concrete the words were.
Together, these findings suggest that iconicity could play an important role in language acquisition.
Thompson and colleagues hypothesize that iconic links between our perceptual-motor experience of the world and the form of a sign may provide an imitation-based mechanism that supports early sign acquisition.
These iconic links highlight motor and perceptual similarity between actions and signs such as DRINK, which is produced by tipping a curved hand to the mouth and represents the action of holding a cup and drinking from it...
Deafinition: "Iconicity as a semiotic notion refers to a natural resemblance or analogy between the form of a sign (‘the signifier’, be it a letter or sound, a word, a structure of words, or even the absence of a sign) and the object or concept (‘the signified’) it refers to in the world or rather in our perception of the world. The similarity between sign and object may be due to common features inherent in both: by direct inspection of the iconic sign we may glean true information about its object. In this case we speak of ‘imagic’ iconicity (as in a portrait or in onomatopoeia, e.g. ‘cuckoo’) and the sign is called an ‘iconic image.’
When we have a plurality of signs, the analogy may be more abstract: we then have to do with diagrammatic iconicity which is based on a relationship between signs that mirrors a similar relation between objects or actions (e.g. a temporal sequence of actions is reflected in the sequence of the three verbs in Caesar’s dictum “veni, vidi, vici”): in this instance, the sign (here the syntactic structure of three verbs) is an ‘iconic diagram.’ Obviously, it is primarily diagrammatic iconicity that is of great relevance to language and literary texts."